Of the patients in whom disease recurred had

Of the 714 patients in whom disease recurred, 98 (10.5%) had recurrence in the urethra, 87 (9.3%) in the upper urinary tract, 448 (47.9%) in the abdomen/pelvis, 122 (13.1%) in the thorax, and 179 (19.2%) at other sites. Simultaneous recurrence in 2 or more locations was found in 195 (27.1%) patients. Location-specific recurrence patterns, stratified by pathologic stage from RC, are shown in Table 2.
We then evaluated the number of recurrences captured by the NCCN and the EAU surveillance guidelines after RC (Table 3). Here, we found that a surveillance multidrug resistance transporter of 2 years, as outlined by the NCCN, would capture 68.7% of all recurrences. Alternatively, monitoring patients for a period of 5 years, as recommended by the EAU, would allow detection of 89.9% of recurrences. Both the guidelines were most limited in their ability to detect recurrences among patients with lower-stage disease: pT0Nx-0 (NCCN, 60.7%; EAU, 80.4%) and pTa/CIS/1Nx-0 (NCCN, 47.9%; EAU, 79.9%) and among patients who developed a secondary upper urinary tract tumor (NCCN, 36.8%; EAU, 77.0%).
The graphical interaction between Weibull models for the risk of recurrence stratified by stage and relapse location and the risk of non–bladder cancer death stratified by age group is shown in the Fig. Age-, stage, and relapse location–specific surveillance durations were then estimated from the Weibull models where the risk of non–bladder cancer death exceeded the risk of recurrence (Table 4). For example, in patients with pT0Nx-0 disease across all age groups, the risk of recurrence in the urethra, upper urinary tract, and thorax was never found to be greater than the risk of non–bladder cancer death following RC. For recurrences to the abdomen/pelvis among patients with pT0Nx-0 disease, the risk of non–bladder cancer–related death began to exceed their risk of recurrence at 2 years for those 60 years and younger, at 1 year for those aged 61 to 70 years, and at 6 months for those aged 71 to 80 years. In contrast, the risk of abdominal/pelvic recurrence for patients 60 years and younger, with either pT3/4Nx-0 or pTanyN+disease, remained greater than their risk of non–bladder cancer death for more than 20 years. Based on these time points, when risk of non–bladder cancer death exceeds the risk of recurrence, we provide in Table 5 post-RC individualized surveillance duration options according to age, stage, and relapse location.

The oncologic surveillance protocols from the NCCN and the EAU, as well as those from independent investigations [4,5,7,10], stop surveillance between 2 and 5 years. This time frame originates from the appreciation that most recurrences present within 5 years [4,5,7,10,12], and it is derived by calculating the cumulative incidence of recurrence. This oversimplified approach fails to incorporate known risk factors and patterns of recurrence [8,10,13–15] and lacks the dynamic ability to capture how a patient׳s chance of recurrence changes over time. As exemplified in prostate cancer, a patient׳s recurrence-free interval correlates with his or her likelihood of recurrence in the future [16]. In bladder cancer, the concept of how a patient׳s risk profile changes with time, as it relates to cancer-specific and overall survival, has been demonstrated using an analysis termed conditional survival [17]. Weibull modeling has the capacity to predict how recurrence risk matures over time and interacts with competing health factors, thereby allowing guidelines to be better formulated to an individual׳s natural course of disease.
Personalizing guidelines may provide a better balance between the derived benefit from surveillance and medical resource allocation. Currently, oncologic surveillance testing has been criticized as being costly from a health care standpoint [18–20]. However, at the same time, patients׳ value follow-up of their cancer. As exemplified in breast cancer surveillance, patients preferred to be seen as frequently as deemed necessary, even if recurrences were not identified [21]. Tailoring surveillance recommendations to the individual may allow a better balance to be achieved between follow-up that is desired and that which is medically necessary. One way to achieve more individualized recommendations is by incorporating a patient׳s competing risks for recurrence into surveillance decision making. The simplified approach used by the current guidelines is unable to capture the interaction that occurs between a patient׳s natural course of disease with bladder cancer and his or her competing health risks.

To account for variable growth rates between species

To account for variable growth rates between species, we analyzed them separately. We used boxplots to confirm that discrete data were normally distributed with homogeneous variance. We examined scatter plots of continuous variables to confirm that residuals were normally distributed with homogeneous variance. Since the assumptions of parametric analysis were not violated, we analyzed raw data and did not have to correct our models. We conducted all analyses using R Statistical Software, version 2.9.2 (The R Foundation for Statistical Computing) and declared significant results at α=0.05.

Excluding trees measured in the nursery in June 2010, we measured the stem caliper of 126, 116, and 69 individual hedge maples, London planetrees, and red oaks, respectively in July and August 2010 (Table 1). With some exceptions, we measured at least five individuals of each Apicidin cost in each year after transplanting (Table 1). Most soils were loamy sands or sandy loams (Table 1). Mean surface area of sidewalk cut-outs in which red oaks were planted was much larger than for the other species. It was also much more variable (Table 1) because of two individuals planted in large sidewalk cut-outs. Mean caliper of trees measured in the nursery was similar among species (Table 1), and the range of measured calipers within each species was limited. Calipers of 93% of hedge maples, 92% of London planetrees, and 74% of red oaks measured in the nursery were within 2.0cm of one another (Table 2). Calipers of 91% of red oaks were within 3.5cm of one another (Table 2).
For all species, piecewise regression models produced significantly better fits than linear regression, demonstrating distinct growth rates before and after the break point (Table 3). Scatter plots of caliper versus years after transplanting revealed the break point for each species (Fig. 4). Table 4 includes the coefficients, standard errors, t- and p-values for parameters of the piecewise regression model for each species. The break point—i.e., establishment period—for hedge maple, London planetree, and red oak was 5.9, 4.0, and 2.1 years, respectively. The significant effect of “Years after transplant” in the piecewise regression (Table 4) indicated that the pre-establishment growth rate of hedge maple and London planetree was greater than zero; this was not true for red oak, as illustrated in Fig. 4. Post-establishment growth rate was greater than zero for all species (Table 4).
Table 5 includes parameters of the multiple regression model to predict stem caliper. Stem caliper increased significantly with years after transplant (red oak), years after transplant squared (hedge maple, London planetree), and surface area of the sidewalk cut-out (London planetree, red oak). There was some evidence that soil texture (percent sand and percent clay) predicted stem caliper for hedge maple. Soil bulk density did not predict stem caliper for any species and only the model for London planetree accounted for more than 75% of the variation in stem caliper.
Accounting for years after transplant and surface area of the sidewalk cut, stem caliper of trees in grass strips or open sidewalk cut-outs was the same for all species (Table 6). London planetree was the only species that we could compare trees planted in sidewalk cut-outs with tree grates. Accounting for years after transplant and surface area of the sidewalk cut-out stem caliper of London planetrees growing in sidewalk cut-outs with a tree grate was less than trees growing in grass strips or sidewalk cut-outs without a tree grate (Table 6). Accounting for years after transplant and surface area of the sidewalk cut, red oaks growing in a sidewalk cut-out with an air vent had greater stem caliper than those growing in sidewalk cut-outs without an air vent (Table 6), but this was not true for hedge maple and London planetree.

Introduction It is known that changes in tissue stiffness

It is known that changes in tissue stiffness are involved in various diseases such as cancerous masses, fibrosis associated with liver cirrhosis, and atheroma and calcification associated with arteriosclerosis. While a variety of techniques such as CT, MRI, and PET are being put to practical use for diagnostic imaging of morphology and function, a technique for objectively assessing tissue stiffness was only recently made widely available with the commercial introduction of ultrasound elastography. Some examples of the clinical usefulness of tissue stiffness measurement are:
In elastically uniform materials, stiffness can easily be expressed using the elastic modulus as described in Section 2.1; however, in the case of biological tissues, there are a variety of factors that determine stiffness including the tissue’s fatty and fibrous constituents. For example, it is known that atherosclerotic plaques become stiffer with disease progression as their composition changes from lipid to fibrosis and calcified tissue. At the macroscopic level, it is known that the tissue in the margins around a malignant breast tumor is resistant to deformation and feels hard during palpation; therefore, tissue elasticity will differ depending on the microscopic or macroscopic observation. Moreover, the elasticity of biological tissue, which is anisotropic, viscous and nonlinear, will differ depending on the direction, extent and rate of deformation. Nevertheless, even when the elastic modulus is determined using the assumption that it is independent of these variables, it shows a high correlation with disease. As shown in Table 1, the results of mechanical measurement of resected breast cancer tissue (DCIS: ductal carcinoma in situ, IDC: invasive ductal carcinoma) showed that its elastic modulus (Young\’s modulus) was significantly higher than that of normal glandular tissue (Krouskop et al. 1998; Wellman et al. 1999; Samani et al. 2007).

Principles of Elastography

Strain and Displacement

Shear Wave Speed Measurement and Imaging
Shear wave imaging methods monitor the propagation of shear waves in tissue. In ldk378 to ultrasonic or compressive waves that propagate in the same direction as the tissue displacement, shear waves propagate in a direction orthogonal to the direction of the tissue displacement (Table A1 in Appendix). These methods estimate the speed of shear wave propagation (cs) through tissues, which, assuming that tissue has very simple behaviors (i.e., linear, isotropic, and homogeneous), is related to the underlying material stiffness through Eq. (2) (G = ρcs2= E/3). As with strain imaging, shear waves can be generated from a variety of sources, including external vibration, physiologic motion, and acoustic radiation force, and in the research community, methods have been developed exploiting each of these. Tables 2a and 2b summarize the commercially available shear wave speed systems, including their methods of excitation and measurements reported, as described in the following sections.

Relationship Between Strain, Displacement, and Shear Wave Speed
Strain, displacement, and shear wave speed images provide information related to the underlying tissue stiffness. As such, in the absence of artifacts, correlation between these image types in a given patient is expected to be high. In general, strain images exhibit higher spatial resolution, and shear wave images have higher contrast; however, when the simplifying assumptions used to derive the images and measurements for different methods do not accurately reflect tissue behaviors, differences between images from different techniques can be anticipated. Tissue nonlinearity is associated with decreased elastogram contrast for some pathologies (Figure 8) and increased shear wave speeds with excessive transducer compression. As a result, for both strain and shear wave methods, minimizing the amount of transducer compression used during imaging (less than 1% or 0.3 mm for a typical 3-cm thickness breast) will result in the most reproducible imaging scenario. Tissue heterogeneities will also impact both approaches, leading to artifacts arising from the reflected waves in shear wave speed images and strain concentrations surrounding tissue heterogeneities. A more detailed investigation of the impact of these assumptions and associated image artifacts should be carried out in the future.

Some studies have found that analysis of intraplacental

Some studies have found that analysis of intraplacental flow by 3-D-PD may constitute a new tool for early detection of the risk of developing certain conditions, such as IUGR, pre-eclampsia and placental insufficiency (Costa et al. 2010; Guimaraes Filho et al. 2010; Guiot et al. 2008; Negrini et al. 2011). Many of these studies, however, were performed during the second and third trimesters of gestation (de Almeida Pimenta et al. 2014; de Paula et al. 2009; Mihu et al. 2012; Odibo et al. 2011; Tuuli et al. 2010) and revealed the effects of the technical limitations previously mentioned, including discrepancies in the results of reproducibility studies (Guimaraes Filho et al. 2011; Lai et al. 2010; Merce et al. 2004) (Fig. 13).
Unlike at more advanced phases of gestation, 3-D-PD in the late first trimester (11–14 wk) offers the advantage of visualizing the entire placenta, thus enabling the complete vascular tree to be assessed and theoretically providing a more accurate analysis of information on vascularization and flow (Araujo Junior et al. 2011b; Bozkurt et al. 2010; Gonzalez Gonzalez et al. 2014; Odeh et al. 2011; Rizzo et al. 2007, 2009a, 2009b; Yigiter et al. 2011). Moreover, it has been reported that pre-eclampsia prevention strategies should be introduced as early as possible, which further emphasizes the importance of placental 3-D-PD before 16 wk of gestation (Bujold et al. 2010). Some recent studies carried out in the late first trimester have revealed reduced placental 3-D-PD indices (Bozkurt et al. 2010; Odeh et al. 2011; Rizzo et al. 2009b; Yigiter et al. 2011) and more restricted uteroplacental circulation space (Dar et al. 2010; Hafner et al. 2010) in women who later developed pre-eclampsia (Dar et al. 2010; Hafner et al. 2010; Odeh et al. 2011) and/or IUGR (Bozkurt et al. 2010, Rizzo et al. 2009b; Yigiter et al. 2011). In addition, reproducibility studies have validated the technique in the first trimester, with good reproducibility of 3-D-PD at this stage of gestation (Huster et al. 2010; Jones Brefeldin A et al. 2010).
There are reports on the use of vascular indices obtained with 3-D-PD for evaluating the fetal Brefeldin A (Bartha et al. 2009; Chang et al. 2003e; Hata et al. 2012b; Hsu et al. 2013; Nardozza et al. 2009), lungs (Ruano et al. 2006a, 2012), liver (Chang et al. 2003d) and kidneys (Bernardes et al. 2011; Chang et al. 2003f). Few studies have been conducted to assess 3-D-PD in cerebral vascularization. Correlation of 3-D indices with gestational age has yielded conflicting results (Bartha et al. 2009; Chang et al. 2003e; Hata et al. 2012b; Nardozza et al. 2009). Bartha et al. (2009) analyzed fetal cerebral circulation with 3-D-PD in 100 normal pregnant women and 25 women with fetuses with IUGR. The authors observed that the fetuses with IUGR had significantly higher values of these indices compared with normal fetuses. They further found that the central hemodynamics of fetuses with IUGR were more frequently diagnosed using 3-D-PD indices than the pulsatility index of the middle cerebral artery. Further studies are required to better evaluate how 3-D-PD can contribute to investigating circulatory changes in the fetal brain. Ruano et al. (2006a) considered the potential of 3-D-PD for predicting neonatal results and pulmonary hypertension in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. They noted that the 3-D indices were statistically lower in cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia. In such cases, VI and VFI were significantly lower in fetuses that died than in those who survived and were also lower in fetuses with a postnatal diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension. Another study reported that of the several parameters analyzed, VI of the lung contralateral to the hernia was the best predictor of fetal prognosis (Ruano et al. 2012). Further studies are needed to establish the validity and applicability of 3-D-PD for investigating alterations in fetal pulmonary vascularization. With respect to evaluation of fetal hepatic and renal vascularization by 3-D-PD, a positive linear correlation has been observed between the three indices (VI, FI and VFI) and gestational age in both organs (Chang et al. 2003d, 2003f). A study of fetuses suspected of having urinary tract obstruction indicated that renal vascularization (VI and VFI) was significantly lower in fetuses that developed renal failure (Bernardes et al. 2011).

The effectiveness of the carotid IMT alone when

The effectiveness of the carotid IMT alone when used to predict the cardiovascular outcome of subjects (Costanzo et al. 2011) has recently been profoundly questioned. In medical practice, IMT is generally measured by a reader who manually detects and marks the lumen–intima (LI) and media–adventitia (MA) interfaces. The geometrical (i.e., Euclidean) distance between these boundaries is then considered the IMT. This manual measurement, however, has been reported to be affected by inter-reader variability (Polak et al. 2011a), partially because of image artifacts, which can make the detection of LI/MA interfaces difficult. The boundaries delineated manually by experts are discrete and noisy, typically made up of only a few points (or samples) along the artery wall (Saba et al. 2012b), which challenges the accurate calculation of variations in IMT regularity. In a follow-up study, Costanzo et al. (2011) identified high intra- and inter-reader variability in measuring IMT from common carotid artery (CCA) ultrasound images as a main cause of the poor predictive value of IMT.
These observations, together with the high inter-observer variability reported in detail by Polak et al. (2011a), support the development of an arsenal of automated tools that could aid and improve IMT measurement from ultrasound images. A fully automated analysis of carotid wall features (i.e., evaluation of IMT and its variation along an artery segment) saves a substantial amount of time for clinicians and avoids the problem of inter-reader variability (Stein et al. 2005). In this regard, it has been reported that edge-detected IMT measurements at the CCA far wall have almost the same, if not even a stronger, association with coronary herpes simplex virus disease events than manually traced IMT measurements (Polak and O\’Leary 2015).
To the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive studies have yet clarified the issue of whether manual expert tracings can be appropriately used to calculate IMT and, more importantly, its variability. This is due to the lack of a ground truth data set. Here, we aim to close this gap by using simulated realistic ultrasound images with a priori IMT and IMTV values, generated by using a recently proposed simulator based on a point source/receiver approach (Aguilar et al. 2013). On the simulated data set, we measure carotid IMT variability both manually and automatically. By analyzing in particular the reliability of expert tracings in the evaluation of IMTV, the ultimate goals of this study are (i) to contribute to further investigation of the role of IMTV in the progression of atherosclerosis plaques and (ii) to translate its use into the clinical practice.


Examples of the results obtained by applying the manual and automated techniques to simulated images, and their comparison with the ground truth, are found in Figures 3 and 4. The manual and automatic LI profiles are depicted by solid white lines, and the MA profiles by solid red lines. The ground truth (GT) profiles are represented by dashed yellow lines. In particular, Figure 4 provides automated segmentation examples, compared with the GT as prescribed in simulated ultrasound images with different nominal IMTs. The left column (A and C) illustrates segmentation results from the first automatic algorithm (Auto), and the right column (B and D) illustrates results from the second automatic algorithm (AutoDS). Note that the automated algorithm produced LI/MA boundaries almost overlapping with the GT boundaries and that, in the presence of high variability (Fig. 4B), the variations in the profile of the LI boundary were tracked.
Figure 5 presents an example of an image with no IMTV variability. In the zoomed windows (Fig. 5B, D), the large white arrows identify sections of the lumen–intima interface that feature visible irregularities in the image because of the simulation effect that both the reader and the automated algorithm captured. However, gametophyte can be observed how the LI profile traced by the algorithm was more accurate in tracing the wall irregularities than the manual profile, and that, overall, the MA profile as computed by the algorithm is closer to the actual GT boundary than the manually traced one. This result obtained on images with no IMTV variability has an impact on IMTV estimation by the automated algorithm and by readers, which is further discussed in the following.

Furthermore a polyester fabric printed with

Furthermore, a polyester fabric printed with an ultrasound treated nano-sized disperse dye improved the color depth of print without addition of extra chemicals to the printing paste [47].
Several effects are responsible for the dyeing rate acceleration arising from the physical and chemical aspects of sonochemistry as presented in Fig. 4.
In spite of the positive role of ultrasound in textile dyeing and enhanced dyeing yield, ultrasound was not effective in dyeing of poly lactic pdk1 with some disperse dyes and pale dyeing with reduced color strength achieved presumably due to the breakdown of the dye dispersions at particular treatment temperature [48]. Hence, considering dyeing parameters including pH, temperature and ultrasound power is important for obtaining the best result [48].

Textile finishing processes accompanied with ultrasound have been documented in literature since 1975 by deeper penetration of cross-linking resins such as urea–formaldehyde under ultrasonic irradiation on cotton fabric [5]. Treating military fabrics with a repellent fluorochemical finish under ultrasonic waves has been patented in 1981 [49]. Also, ultrasound energy led to more efficient coating of the softener layer on the cotton fiber surface [50]. Overall, the ultrasound-assisted reactions in textile finishing have been reported to improve the finish add-on and accelerate the rates of textile finishing [5].

Other ultrasound applications in textile

Scale-up issues
In the last 100years, ultrasound has had the potential for use in different textile areas as reviewed in this paper including cleaning, desizing, degumming, bleaching, dyeing, printing, nanoparticles synthesis and waste water treatment and shown to be technically feasible by numerous published reports.
Sonication can be applied directly to the reaction mixture by using ultrasonic probes (horn) or indirectly through the walls of the sample container using ultrasonic bath. In ultrasonic baths the power density is relatively low comparing to large amounts of power directly generated by an ultrasonic horn [111]. While in almost all the textile sonopreparation processes ultrasonic baths have been applied, horn type systems have been widely used for sonodyeing and sonofinishing procedures.
Several researchers have studied the ultrasound characteristics in different zones of bath and probe systems [3]. As the ultrasonic intensity distribution in an ultrasonic bath is not homogeneous, subatomic particles is necessary to determine the position with highest intensity to locate the reaction vessel. Moreover, the shape of the bottom of the reaction vessel influences the wave patterns [111]. In order to understand the acoustic field structure in sonochemical reactors, numerical studies by different softwares have been carried out to model the cavitation events within the sonoreactor [112]. While most of the previous reports concerned with linear based models, non-linearity of formation, growth and collapse of the cavitation bubbles directed researchers toward non-linear based simulations [112–114]. In most recent non-linear models the vibration of solid boundaries of reactors and vibration of ultrasonic transducers have been also accounted [115,116].
In comparison to the ever-widening span of laboratory-scale ultrasound applications in textile which has attracted researchers, its use in industry is limited [3,117,118]. The obstacle toward industrialization of ultrasound is the effect of acoustic cavitation on erosion damage [118]. Besides, the first steps in scaling up the process burden with high operating costs. However, the processing cost may be off-set by the promising advantages of ultrasound that can bring to textile industry, such as acceleration in process rate, increase in productivity and the level of product quality while reducing pollution [3]. Furthermore, process optimization possibly leads to a considerable saving in overall cost of the process and for any sonochemical process there is an optimum power for maximum effect [117]. Understanding the appropriate design parameters for an ultrasound reactor is necessary for the ideal use of sonochemistry in textile industry.

As explained in Section the alkali

As explained in Section 1, the alkali elements are present in three forms: (1) water-soluble, (2) ion-exchangeable, and (3) fixed. In this crf hormone methodology, only water-soluble alkalis were removed during washing since no chemicals were deployed for leaching other forms of alkalis. Water-soluble alkalis are present on the surface of coal particles and are easy to remove by washing with water. Hence, the ultrasonic removal of alkalis presents no significant benefits over stirring. In order to demonstrate the true effectiveness of acoustic methods, chemical washing by stirring and ultrasound are carried-out.
Fig. 6 depicts the results of ultrasonic removal of alkali elements by chemical leaching in comparison with stirring. It may be inferred from the graphs that the ultrasonic chemical washing shows a dramatic improvement in the removal of sodium in both tested coals. Coal A showed three times increase in percentage removal of sodium by ultrasonic-chemical washing (∼85%) compared to chemical stirring (∼30%). A similar intensification by ultrasound was observed in coal B as well.
Such observations confirm the intensifying effect of ultrasonic washing, similar to the observations of Ambedkar et al. [18]. This proves that due to the sequential action of cavitation and streaming phenomena, chemicals are able to penetrate into the pores of coal particles where the ion-exchangeable sodium is present. A four-stage mechanism that enhances the leaching of sodium in the presence of ultrasounds has been proposed, and involves pitting of coal surfaces, formation of cracks, penetration of cracks into coal particles, and breakage of coal particles [19,22]. Hence, the sequential exposure of ultrasonic waves of 25kHz and 430kHz is more effective in removing the bonded sodium elements compared to agitation. These preliminary results on ultrasonic removal of sodium are encouraging, warranting further studies and scale-up investigations.
The removal of potassium, however, is not enhanced in the presence of ultrasonic waves and an ion-exchanger. This is attributed to the chemical nature of potassium elements in coals. Potassium is bonded with silica in the form of potassium silicate, and hence, strong acids, such as hydrofluoric acid, are required to react with it [16]. Contrary to potassium, a significant amount of sodium is available in organically-bonded form and is therefore removable by ammonium acetate. The removal efficiency in terms of mg of Na removed per kJ of energy supplied for the processing time of 30min was calculated. In presence of ammonium acetate, coal A and B showed removal efficiencies of 0.003 and 0.02mg of Na removed/kJ for ultrasonic washing and 0.004 and 0.02mg of Na removed/kJ for stirring, respectively. Though stirring requires lesser energy to leach compared to ultrasound, it is of the same order of magnitude in terms of energy consumption.

A preliminary study on the effect of low (25kHz) – and high-frequency (430kHz) ultrasound waves in removing alkali elements – elements responsible for formation and growth of fouling deposits – from coals was conducted. Two methodologies (agitation and sonication) of plain water-washing and chemical-washing were employed in order to remove the water-soluble alkalis and ion-exchangeable alkalis, respectively, of coals. In water-washing, both agitation and ultrasonic washings lead to similar removal efficiencies. In chemical washing – using ammonium acetate – ultrasonic washing showed a significantly enhanced removal efficiency of sodium compared to agitation. The reason for the enhanced efficiency lies in the removal of ion-exchangeable alkalis, where ultrasonic cavitation and streaming phenomena were able to enhance the penetration of the chemical into pores in the coal matrix. It has been further inferred that removal efficiencies (mg of sodium removed per kJ of energy supplied) for ultrasonic chemical washing are 0.003 and 0.02, while for stirring are 0.004 and 0.02. Hence, ultrasonic chemical-washing may be employed in a coal-fired power plant to contain severity of fouling deposits.

br Introduction Anaerobic digestion AD offers sustainable treatment of organic

Anaerobic digestion (AD) offers sustainable treatment of organic wastes with the production of methane (CH4)-rich biogas through a series of biochemical activities: hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis, and methanogenesis. In our previous studies, an enhanced CH4 yield from an PCI32765 digester (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket; UASBr) treating complex organic wastewater in the presence of low-strength ultrasonication (0.05W/mL, 1s per 1min) was evidenced by the changes of physico-chemical properties and microbial community of the sludge granules [1,2]. The experimental results showed that low-strength ultrasonication resulted in numerous craters and cracks on the granular surface, leading to a 2.3 times higher specific surface area and 37% higher permeability of the ultrasonicated granules compared to the control [1]. Proliferation of syntrophic acetogenic bacteria (δ-Proteobacteria) and their methanogenic partners (Methanosaeta, Methanotorris, and Methanococcus) under ultrasonic conditions was observed, implying that acetogenesis and methanogenesis were enhanced at microbial community level by low-strength ultrasonication [2]. Considering that hydrolysis is the first step of AD and often the rate-limiting step for the treatment of complex organic wastewater, we could further hypothesize that hydrolysis activity might have been improved by low-strength ultrasonication. Although no hydrolyzing bacteria was evidently enriched in the ultrasonicated UASBr [2], enhanced enzyme activity could result from increased mass transfer due to higher specific surface area and permeability [1].
Low-strength ultrasonication has been reported to stimulate various bioprocesses. Positive effects of low-strength ultrasonication on the cell growth (yeast, Aspergillus spp., Bacillus licheniformis, Micromonospora spp., Eremothecium ashbyi etc.), enzyme synthesis (lipase, cellulase, pectinase, invertase, glucoamylase, alpha-amylase etc.), and microbial fermentation (riboflavin, lovastatin, gentamicin etc.) have been comprehensively reviewed [3]. To the best of our best knowledge, however, direct measurement of hydrolytic enzymes from low-strength ultrasonicated methanogenic granules in the UASBr system has never been investigated [4] although UASBr has been considered as one of the most successful CH4 production systems.
In the present work, the effects of low-strength ultrasonication on hydrolytic enzyme activities (amylase, cellulase and protease) were evaluated for the methanogenic granules in the UASBr. The distribution of the enzymes in liquid- and solid-phases were also analyzed to test if ultrasonication facilitated excretion of hydrolytic enzymes into the liquid-phase. Further discussion was made to link enzyme results with the enhanced CH4 yield, and to suggest the mechanisms of activated and deactivated enzyme excretion by low-strength ultrasonication.

Materials and methods

Results and discussion


Author contributions

This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2015R1C1A1A01051692) and the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) and the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE) of the Republic of Korea (No. 20163030091540).

Green coconut water is a tropical beverage obtained from the immature coconut fruit (Cocos nucifera L.) [1,2], with an increasing demand not only due to its sensory properties, but also due to its nutritional characteristics. It contains a remarkable content of salts and minerals, such as potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium and also of sugars [3], being considered a drink with great potential for rehydration [1] and health [4]. In addition, coconut water contains other important compounds such as free amino acids (serine, glycine, histidine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, isoleucine and leucine [5], vitamins of the B-complex and enzymes (phosphatase, catalase, dehydrogenase, diastase, peroxidase, polyphenoloxidase, RNA polymerases) [1,2,4]. In fact, the presence of oxidase enzymes is an important factor for industrialization since their activity results in undesirable changes, such as the development of pinkish and dark brown colours [6].

To the best of our knowledge no data on the

To the best of our knowledge, no data on the combined use of water as solvent and hydrogen peroxide as O-donor for such heterogeneously catalyzed reaction was reported so far. The present study falls within this context with the aim of investigating the hydrogen peroxide oxidation of vanillyl alcohol into vanillin with a non-noble metal based solid catalyst under more eco-friendly conditions (ambient pressure, low temperature and aqueous medium) coupled with low frequency ultrasonic irradiation (US), as unconventional activation route (Scheme 1).
In order to evaluate the effects of US on the reaction and the associated oxidation mechanisms, comparative studies were carried out under conventional heating (CH). For that purpose, a nanostructured spinel cobalt oxide (Co3O4) was synthesized via a controlled co-precipitation route and fully characterized before and after reaction by several complementary techniques, such as XRD, nitrogen adsorption, TG-DTA, elemental analysis, TPR, scanning and transmission NCT-501 microscopy and XPS.
Moreover, sonochemistry could offer new strategies in heterogeneous catalyzed-oxidation reactions through intense mechanical, thermal and chemical effects generally responsible of an increase of reaction rates, changes in reaction mechanisms, emulsification effects, crystallization, precipitation, erosion, etc [17,18]. The formation, growth and the sudden collapse of gaseous microbubbles in the liquid phase, due to the cavitation phenomenon, create locally high temperatures and pressures that can initiate high-energy radical mechanisms and generate physical effects [19–21]. Even if the full mechanism has not yet been elucidated, it is usually accepted that NCT-501 low frequencies (20–80kHz) preferentially lead to physical effects, while high frequencies (150–2000kHz) favor the production of radicals. However, it is known that the production of HO radicals can be improved in water at low frequency in the presence of catalysts through sono-Fenton-like processes [22]. In the present work, the ability of ultrasound to generate in situ hydrogen peroxide and hence hydroxyl radicals (chemical effects) and the increase of mass transfer between the Co3O4 catalyst and the substrate (physical effects) will be discussed.


Results and discussion

In this paper, the challenge was to perform the catalytic oxidation of vanillyl alcohol to vanillin under milder reaction conditions than those generally used in the literature. Working under mild conditions (hydrogen peroxide, low temperature, ambient pressure) while promoting the mass transfer in a heterogeneously catalyzed system, requires the employment of specific activation methods, such as ultrasound irradiation. Ultrasound generated in aqueous medium indeed favors the production of hydroxyl radicals through in situ formation of H2O2 (chemical effects), as well as the increase of mass transfer between the Co3O4 catalyst and the organic substrate (physical effects). Such sono-Fenton-like mediated selective oxidation proved to be more efficient than the reaction carried out under conventional heating owing to synergistic effects between the ultrasound, H2O2 and the solid catalyst. A vanillyl alcohol conversion of 38% was reached after only 15min of reaction under US conditions with a selectivity to vanillin of 50%. Even if further improvements are still needed, the novelty of this work relies on the coupling of a non-noble metal based heterogeneous catalyst with a sonochemical activation method for the oxidation of a lignin model compound under more eco-friendly conditions, especially when the challenging use of water as solvent is concerned. The ultrasound-assisted H2O2 catalytic oxidation of vanillyl alcohol to vanillin in water proved to be faster (4×), more selective (2.3×) and more efficient (2.7×) than the corresponding reaction under silent conditions. Additionally, a far decrease of the energy consumption of the reaction under ultrasound was observed (36kJ vs. 288kJ). This preliminary work opens the door for further investigations in heterogeneously catalyzed sono-Fenton-like-assisted reactions in order to develop greener selective oxidation processes in the future.

br Introduction The structures with Schottky contacts are known to

The structures with Schottky contacts are known to be widely applied in high-speed logic circuits, integrated and optoelectronic technologies. The electrical characteristics of such structures depend on various defects. Therefore any alteration of a defect system results in modified Schottky diode characteristics. For example, the variations of Schottky barrier height (SBH), ideality factor and reverse current were observed after γ-irradiation of metal–semiconductor structures [1–6]. Moreover, the values of these characteristics often change non-monotonically depending on the absorbed dose [3–6]. On the other hand, in recent years, ultrasonic (US) waves were found to affect various properties of semiconductors. In particular, US treatment causes the modification of silicon surface state spectrum [7], the increase of metal cluster size in silicon oxide [8,9], the change of paramagnetic properties of silicon nanoclusters in SiO2[10], as well as the modification of different optical properties of semiconductor structures [11–14]. Moreover, under the action of US waves the electrical properties of barrier structure reveal both residual [15–17] and reversible (dynamic) [18,19] changes. In addition, by applying US treatment, the chemokine receptor defects (RDs) in semiconductors can be annealed [20–23]. Unfortunately, nearly all the reports dealing with acoustically stimulated effects in irradiated structures are mainly concerned with applying high ultrasound power and residual modification of properties, while the works that focus on the reversible acoustically induced effects are very few.
Our goal is to investigate experimentally the dynamic variations of electrical characteristic which take place in γ-irradiated Mo/–Si structures in the result of US loading. The investigation would provide not only better understanding of US wave – defect interaction but could also facilitate the development of acoustically controlled devices or radiation sensors.

Experimental details
The samples used in our experiments were m thick n-Si:P epitaxial layer on m thick -Si:Sb substrate. The diameter of molybdenum Schottky contact fabricated on the epi-layer surface was 2mm.
The investigated structures were exposed to 60Co γ-ray radiation. The cumulative dose was 0kGy, 10kGy and 100kGy for samples M0, M10 and M100 respectively.
The substrate carrier concentration was m−3. The epi-layer carrier concentration was monitored by measuring capacity–voltage (C–V) characteristics: the slope of the plotted curve obtained for dependence –V showed [24] that was m−3, m−3 and m−3 for M0, M10, and M100 respectively.
The current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of the samples both with and without US loading were measured at room temperature. In case of US loading, the longitudinal waves excited in the samples were 9.6MHz in frequency and had the intensity of W/cm2. In order to avoid the effect of piezoelectric field on I–V characteristics, the piezoelectric cell was shielded — see Fig. 1. The sample temperature was controlled by differential copper-constantan thermocouple. Since the sample heated due to US loading, this was taken into account in the calculations of acoustically induced changes of the parameters. To identify the charge-transport mechanisms in the structures under study, the I–V characteristics were measured in the temperature range from 260 to 330K without US loading.

Results and discussion
Fig. 2 shows the I–V characteristics that were measured for Mo/n-Si structures both with and without US loading. It can be seen that the forward current as well as the reverse current increases under the action of ultrasound. The increase in the values depends on both bias voltage and the degree of γ-irradiation. It should be emphasized that all the acoustically induced variations of the structure parameters (Figs. 2, 6, 9 and 10) are reversible, i.e., Heterochromatin relax after US loading (the falling time was approximately ten minutes). In order to better understand the possible causes of US influence, we have analyzed the charge transport mechanisms in the samples under study.